Tools numbering in the thousands were removed from the site before professional excavations began, but a very large quantity of tools and debitage remained.Currently, the number recovered is estimated at ca. This includes artifacts from all the main cultural periods in Central Texas with the largest quantities belonging to the Clovis-age (more than 600,000 artifacts) and a significant number (138,000 - "The Gault Assemblage") of artifacts from the intact older strata.In 2007 the site was purchased and donated to The Archaeological Conservancy .Currently a majority of the site is managed and administered by the GSAR on behalf of the Conservancy and tours and educational opportunities are offered there on a regular basis (see details).Clovis was by far the most abundantly represented of these manifestations.Of the 11 cultures possible to find represented on archaeological sites in central Texas, the Gault site has samples of all 11.Most of these sites are widely spaced geographically and do not contain an extensive array of associated lithic materials that would show a diagnostic pattern of tool production and use.An attempt to define the characteristics of these older technologies can best be accomplished by investigating sites which are both well-stratified, containing both the older and Clovis materials—in order to compare technologies in use in the same location under similar conditions—and show evidence of extended periods of occupation where a wide range of activities took place employing the whole array of lithic tools.
It bears evidence of almost continuous human occupation, starting at least 16,000 years ago—making it one of the few but growing number of archaeological sites in the Americas at which compelling evidence has been found for human occupation dating to before the appearance of the Clovis culture.
Excavations have been conducted in 15 areas, augmented by numerous machine-dug trenches and boreholes as well as the use of non-invasive geophysical procedures.
The work in 1998–2002 focused on relatively undisturbed, early deposits beneath the looted midden.
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