First, in the Old Testament, Gabriel appears to the prophet Daniel to explain his ... Cecilia was a married woman, her children were the Saints Hasang Paul Chong and Jung Hye.When Cecilia was widowed, she was deprived of all her possessions and imprisoned because of her Christian faith. continue reading When the father of this Italian saint died, his good mother brought up her twelve children well, even though they were very poor. Blandina's journal and letters, one of Billy the ...Julian was born at Constantinople in 331.
After many years of tense relations with his three half-brothers, Constantine seemed to have welcomed them into the fold of the imperial family. This essay is not meant to be a comprehensive look at the various issues central to the reign of Julian and the history of the later empire. "Chrysanthius;" and Athanassiadi-Fowden, Julian and Hellenism, 32-3. 8.415A-D; 12.383a-b; Athanassiadi-Fowden, Julian and Hellenism, 33-7. Rather, this short work is meant to be a brief history and introduction for the general reader. Julian was the last direct descendent of the Constantinian line to ascend to the purple, and it is one of history's great ironies that he was the last non-Christian emperor. As such, he has been vilified by most Christian sources, beginning with John Chrysostom and Gregory Nazianzus in the later fourth century. This was the way that emperors functioned in the fourth century. For a detailed discussion of Julian's early life and the sources thereon, see Thomas Banchich, DIR, s.v. By choosing whom to include in the sharing of power, they sought to shape society. "Die Usurpation Julians des Abtrünnigen im Lichte seiner Germanenpolitik." Historische Zeitschrift 180 (1955): 225-44. "Julianos (26)." Real-Encyclopädie der classischen Altertumswissenschaft 10: 26-91. He saw himself as the restorer of the traditional values of Roman society. Of course much of this was rhetoric, meant to defend Julian against charges that he was a usurper. Claudius Julianus 29." 3Bowerstock, Julian, 2-11. 6Mathisen, Fourth Century, 12-5; Athanassiadi-Fowden, Julian and Hellenism, 96-7. The exact date of his birth is a matter of dispute, but most scholars accept 331 as the date based upon Ammianus Marcellinus. Claudius Constantius Gallus." 14Bowerstock, Julian, 21. This tradition was picked up by the fifth century Eusebian continuators Sozomen, Socrates Scholasticus, and Theodoret and passed on to scholars down through the 20 century. For a thorough discussion of the chronology of Julian and Gallus' early education and stay in Asia Minor, its sources, and the problems surrounding this issue, see Banchich, DIR , s.v. Most contemporary sources, however, paint a much more balanced picture of Julian and his reign. "Hecebolius." []The exact date of Julian's exile to Macellum is disputed, with some scholars putting it in 342. 344 seems the most logical date for we have Julian's own account of this six year period where he states that Gallus, who spent the six years at Macellum also, went straight from this estate to the imperial court, where he was proclaimed Caesar.]]