Thirdly, in designing the questionnaire we must take into account factors such as the age, education, etc. It may seem strange to be suggesting that the method of reaching the intended respondents should constitute part of the questionnaire design process.
However, a moment's reflection is sufficient to conclude that the method of contact will influence not only the questions the researcher is able to ask but the phrasing of those questions.
The authors conclude that validation using triangulation of different data sources provides not only information on the validity of the instrument but also valuable insights into the construct itself.
Chapter Objectives Structure Of The Chapter The qualities of a good questionnaire Preliminary decisions in questionnaire design Choose the method(s) of reaching target respondents Decide on question content Develop the question wording Disadvantages are also present when using such questions Closing questions Physical appearance of the questionnaire Piloting the questionnaires Chapter Summary Key Terms Review Questions Chapter References No survey can achieve success without a well-designed questionnaire.
Validation of data collection instruments is an extremely important step in research; however, it is often only briefly reported in research studies.
This paper deals with the validation of a writing strategies questionnaire and presents the various stages in the validation process.
Instead one might prepare a brief guide, listing perhaps ten major open-ended questions, with appropriate probes/prompts listed under each.
Formal standardised questionnaires: If the researcher is looking to test and quantify hypotheses and the data is to be analysed statistically, a formal standardised questionnaire is designed.
These are the only two components of this chapter on questionnaire design.Moreover, checks can be made on the appropriateness of the timing of the study in relation to contemporary events such as avoiding farm visits during busy harvesting periods. Choose the method(s) of reaching your target respondents.4. One may already have an idea about the kind of information to be collected, but additional help can be obtained from secondary data, previous rapid rural appraisals and exploratory research.There are nine steps involved in the development of a questionnaire: 1. In respect of secondary data, the researcher should be aware of what work has been done on the same or similar problems in the past, what factors have not yet been examined, and how the present survey questionnaire can build on what has already been discovered.Such questionnaires are generally characterised by: Given the same task and the same hypotheses, six different people will probably come up with six different questionnaires that differ widely in their choice of questions, line of questioning, use of open-ended questions and length.There are no hard-and-fast rules about how to design a questionnaire, but there are a number of points that can be borne in mind: 1.The questionnaire was validated using a qualitative and a quantitative method with two groups of participants from the target population, i.e. Using the qualitative and quantitative data, the authors discuss factors which affected the participants’ responses to the questionnaire, dividing them into factors related to the construct of writing strategies, and those related to the research instrument and reliability check method.Potential problems and limitations of research into writing strategies using questionnaires are pointed out.For example, in marketing research, researchers often have to decide whether they should cover only existing users of the generic product type or whether to also include non-users.Secondly, researchers have to draw up a sampling frame.A well-designed questionnaire should meet the research objectives.This may seem obvious, but many research surveys omit important aspects due to inadequate preparatory work, and do not adequately probe particular issues due to poor understanding. Every survey is bound to leave some questions unanswered and provide a need for further research but the objective of good questionnaire design is to 'minimise' these problems. It should obtain the most complete and accurate information possible.